Review of: Cricket

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On 05.12.2020
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Cricket

Informationen zum Deutschen Cricket Bund, den Nationalmannschaften und Meisterschaften. Cricket gehört zu den Ballsportarten, genauer gesagt zu den Schlagballspielen. Zwei Mannschaften treten in einer Kombination aus Schlagen, Fangen und. IST Melbourne Cricket Ground (MCG), Melbourne. NZ. 1st Test12/26/ PAK. IST Bay Oval, Mount Maunganui. SA. 2nd Test1/3/ SL.

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IST Melbourne Cricket Ground (MCG), Melbourne. NZ. 1st Test12/26/ PAK. IST Bay Oval, Mount Maunganui. SA. 2nd Test1/3/ SL. Informationen zum Deutschen Cricket Bund, den Nationalmannschaften und Meisterschaften. Einband - ingatlan-zoldkartya.com S. 2 - ingatlan-zoldkartya.com S. 3.

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Cricket

Crickets are mainly nocturnal , and are best known for the loud, persistent, chirping song of males trying to attract females, although some species are mute.

The singing species have good hearing, via the tympana on the tibiae of the front legs. Crickets often appear as characters in literature.

They are kept as pets in countries from China to Europe, sometimes for cricket fighting. Crickets are efficient at converting their food into body mass , making them a candidate for food production.

They are used as human food in Southeast Asia, where they are sold deep-fried in markets as snacks. They are also used to feed carnivorous pets and zoo animals.

In Brazilian folklore, crickets feature as omens of various events. Crickets are small to medium-sized insects with mostly cylindrical, somewhat vertically flattened bodies.

The head is spherical with long slender antennae arising from cone-shaped scapes first segments and just behind these are two large compound eyes.

On the forehead are three ocelli simple eyes. The pronotum first thoracic segment is trapezoidal in shape, robust, and well- sclerotinized. It is smooth and has neither dorsal nor lateral keels ridges.

At the tip of the abdomen is a pair of long cerci paired appendages on rearmost segment , and in females, the ovipositor is cylindrical, long and narrow, smooth and shiny.

The femora third segments of the back pair of legs are greatly enlarged for jumping. The tibiae fourth segments of the hind legs are armed with a number of moveable spurs, the arrangement of which is characteristic of each species.

The tibiae of the front legs bear one or more tympani which are used for the reception of sound. The wings lie flat on the body and are very variable in size between species, being reduced in size in some crickets and missing in others.

The fore wings are elytra made of tough chitin , acting as a protective shield for the soft parts of the body and in males, bear the stridulatory organs for the production of sound.

The hind pair is membranous, folding fan-wise under the fore wings. In many species, the wings are not adapted for flight.

The tree crickets Oecanthinae are delicate white or pale green insects with transparent fore wings, while the field crickets Gryllinae are robust brown or black insects.

They have colonised many large and small islands, sometimes flying over the sea to reach these locations, or perhaps conveyed on floating timber or by human activity.

The greatest diversity occurs in tropical locations, such as in Malaysia, where 88 species were heard chirping from a single location near Kuala Lumpur.

A greater number than this could have been present because some species are mute. Crickets are found in many habitats. Members of several subfamilies are found in the upper tree canopy , in bushes, and among grasses and herbs.

They also occur on the ground and in caves, and some are subterranean, excavating shallow or deep burrows.

Some make home in rotting wood, and certain beach-dwelling species can run and jump over the surface of water.

Crickets are relatively defenceless, soft-bodied insects. Most species are nocturnal and spend the day hidden in cracks, under bark, inside curling leaves, under stones or fallen logs, in leaf litter, or in the cracks in the ground that develop in dry weather.

Some excavate their own shallow holes in rotting wood or underground and fold in their antennae to conceal their presence.

Some of these burrows are temporary shelters, used for a single day, but others serve as more permanent residences and places for mating and laying eggs.

Crickets burrow by loosening the soil with the mandibles and then carrying it with the limbs, flicking it backwards with the hind legs or pushing it with the head.

Other defensive strategies are the use of camouflage , fleeing, and aggression. Some species have adopted colourings, shapes, and patterns that make it difficult for predators that hunt by sight to detect them.

They tend to be dull shades of brown, grey, and green that blend into their background, and desert species tend to be pale. Some species can fly, but the mode of flight tends to be clumsy, so the most usual response to danger is to scuttle away to find a hiding place.

Most male crickets make a loud chirping sound by stridulation scraping two specially textured wings together. The stridulatory organ is located on the tegmen , or fore wing, which is leathery in texture.

A large vein runs along the centre of each tegmen, with comb-like serrations on its edge forming a file-like structure, and at the rear edge of the tegmen is a scraper.

The tegmina are held at an angle to the body and rhythmically raised and lowered which causes the scraper on one wing to rasp on the file on the other.

The central part of the tegmen contains the "harp", an area of thick, sclerotinized membrane which resonates and amplifies the volume of sound, as does the pocket of air between the tegmina and the body wall.

Most female crickets lack the necessary adaptations to stridulate, so make no sound. Several types of cricket songs are in the repertoire of some species.

The calling song attracts females and repels other males, and is fairly loud. The courting song is used when a female cricket is near and encourages her to mate with the caller.

A triumphal song is produced for a brief period after a successful mating, and may reinforce the mating bond to encourage the female to lay some eggs rather than find another male.

Crickets chirp at different rates depending on their species and the temperature of their environment. The relationship between temperature and the rate of chirping is known as Dolbear's law.

According to this law, counting the number of chirps produced in 14 seconds by the snowy tree cricket , common in the United States , and adding 40 will approximate the temperature in degrees Fahrenheit.

In , Dr. William H. Cade discovered that the parasitic tachinid fly Ormia ochracea is attracted to the song of the cricket, and uses it to locate the male to deposit her larvae on him.

It was the first known example of a natural enemy that locates its host or prey using the mating signal. In response to this selective pressure, a mutation leaving males unable to chirp was observed amongst a population of Teleogryllus oceanicus on the Hawaiian island of Kauai , enabling these crickets to elude their parasitoid predators.

Some species, such as the ground crickets Nemobiinae , are wingless; others have small fore wings and no hind wings Copholandrevus , others lack hind wings and have shortened fore wings in females only, while others are macropterous, with the hind wings longer than the fore wings.

Probably, most species with hind wings longer than fore wings engage in flight. Some species, such as Gryllus assimilis , take off, fly, and land efficiently and well, while other species are clumsy fliers.

In other species, they may be pulled off and consumed by the cricket itself or by another individual, probably providing a nutritional boost.

Gryllus firmus exhibits wing polymorphism ; some individuals have fully functional, long hind wings and others have short wings and cannot fly. The short-winged females have smaller flight muscles, greater ovarian development, and produce more eggs, so the polymorphism adapts the cricket for either dispersal or reproduction.

In some long-winged individuals, the flight muscles deteriorate during adulthood and the insect's reproductive capabilities improve.

Captive crickets are omnivorous ; when deprived of their natural diet, they accept a wide range of organic foodstuffs. Some species are completely herbivorous , feeding on flowers, fruit, and leaves, with ground-based species consuming seedlings, grasses, pieces of leaf, and the shoots of young plants.

Others are more predatory and include in their diet invertebrate eggs, larvae, pupae, moulting insects, scale insects , and aphids.

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